Gaius Marius’ military reforms caused more problems for the Roman Republic than any enemy of Rome ever could. With Marius in command of its legions, Rome prevailed on the battlefields of North Africa and defeated a two-pronged invasion of the Italian peninsula by 300,000 migrating Germanic tribesmen. Gaius Marius. Marius gained the Consulship in 107 BCE where he abolished the land ownership requirement for joining the Roman army. The classes in the Roman society no longer dictated the status of the soldiers in the army.Every soldiers weaponry and position in the lines was determent by the commanders,property no longer determined the position in the ranks. So Marius had introduced his first reform. If you have trouble accessing this page and need to request an alternate format, contact [email protected] The serves in the army was set to sixteen years. Marius is more known for his military reforms than for his victories, and perhaps rightly so, but his victories really were extraordinarily important for the future success of Rome. And the superiority of her legions -- the premiere heavy infantry of the ancient and classical world -- was the result of the first century BC reforms of one man, Gaius Marius. Gaius Marius comes from a latin family, that lived  in a village close to the town of Arpinum. Previously only those who had land or wealth could join the army. In this day and age we celebrate New Years on January 1st. Furthermore, since he was establishing Rome’s army, essentially from scratch, Marius was able to change the manner in which his new army would be organized, choosing to make the century (a group of 100 soldiers) the basic unit from which his legions were built. The army was to be strong, disciplined and universal, ready to act in various conditions, which, as it turned out, was achieved. Gaius Marius, (born c. 157 bce, Cereatae, near Arpinum [Arpino], Latium [now in Italy]—died January 13, 86 bce, Rome), Roman general and politician, consul seven times (107, 104–100, 86 bce), who was the first Roman to illustrate the political support that a successful general could derive from the votes of his old army veterans.. Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman, noted for his reforms of the Roman draft. Neither text, nor links to other websites, is reviewed or endorsed by The Ohio State University. Wool was the most used material in the middle ages. By the 2nd Century BCE, the city of Rome reigned supreme in the Western Mediterranean. Officers were often given 10 to 25 times more monetary rewards then the common soldier. The content of this site is published by the site owner(s) and is not a statement of advice, opinion, or information pertaining to The Ohio State University. Gaius Marius (157-86 B.C.) This popular support to the surprise of Metellus gave Marius what he wanted a consulship for the year 107 B.C.E. When Marius was given the command over the army he really didn’t have an army to give any commands to, because most of the army under Metellus left with him and the main source of manpower eligible to be a Roman soldier was drained. How Did People Make Fabric in the Middle Ages and How Did They Color It. Every legion was given a new banner and a silver eagle. This contubernia consisted of 10 men, 8 of which were legionaries and the rest servants. Third, Marius ensured that any Roman soldiers who spent enough time serving in the army would be compensated with a plot of farmland for them to retire to. By 146 BCE, slave… While preparing to head to Africa to clash with Jugurtha, he enlisted Romans of all classes into his army, including the poor. The Roman army was now much larger, enabling greater conquests; uniformly outfitted, enabling more complex and efficient tactics; and  more mobile, enabling faster strategic maneuvers. Marius’s reforms were created to strengthen the Republic by professionalizing Rome’s military, but instead the political impact of the reforms had long term consequences that helped contribute to the decline of the late Roman Republic. He was elected to consul a record seven times. Many of Marius’s reforms, especially that all soldiers must carry their own supplies and gear,7 shook the status quo and therefore could be unpopular, even if reforms merely meant to promote more successful tactics. Gaius Marius was born in the city of Arpinum in Italy. What Kind of Food Was Common Among the People in the Middle ages? Before the reforms there were standardized army banners, but Marius gave the army new banners. I), Chap. Through these reforms, the Roman army was transformed from a semi-professional militia to a professional fighting force. He proved himself a capable soldier and a great commander. Under these conditions a large number of people flocked into the ranks of Marius’s army. By considering the claims of rival commanders during the war, Q. Caecilius Metellus (ca 160 BC – 91 BC) and L. Cornelius The so-called “Marian Reforms” are often touted as a grand vision of reform for the Roman army, a top-down strategic overhaul to adapt the Roman military to a new kind of warfare and usher Rome into a new era. 104/24 C.Marius reforms the Roman army. Thoroughly defeated in every engagement, Rome faced a manpower crisis similar to those faced during Hannibal's offensive in the Second Punic War. Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. Some of which remained in the legions for many years. Most notably, the reforms of Gaius Marius and the aftereffects of both the Social and Civil Wars altered the Roman army as a whole. Because they owned no land they could not afford to equip themselves with any armaments so Marius made it possible for the state to equip every soldier in the Roman Army. All these reforms resulted in creating a professional army, a better army, a more efficient one and  a force not to be taken lightly on the battlefield. In order to make this reform work, Marius also standardized the equipment that Roman soldiers were to use while on campaign and ensured that his new army would provide each of its soldiers with said equipment. Gaius Marius can be obtained from silver and gold chests. Through these reforms, the Roman army was transformed from a semi-professional militia to a professional fighting force. Marius became a tribune and he carried a law in favor of the plebs. His parents didn’t give him any education. The hypothesis of this report is that the military reforms instituted by Gaius Marius ultimately paved the way for the fall of the Roman Republic. With his election as Consul in 107 BC, and his subsequent appointment as commander of the Roman legions in Numidia, Marius faced a difficult challenge. Another benefit of the reforms was the settlement of retired le… The first cohort wasn’t standardized and it consisted of 5 centuries each with double their strength to 160 men. 104/26 Marius seeks aid from Bithynia. His spectacular life and career which included seven consulships has been subject to many different interpretations. This fact alone was instrumental in the growth and success of the Roman military machine and resulted in the continued success of the Romans on the battlefield. Not only did his reforms but also his conduct & tactics as a commander paved the way to victory over Jugurtha and future foes. This was contrary to Roman policy. The division of land to the veterans also attributed to the Romanization of the conquered regions. Ultimately, the Marian Reforms had a huge impact on the Roman army and how it operated. 104/18 Marius is elected consul again. II analyzes the Roman manipular army, its formation, policies, and armament. has long been a controversial figure in Roman history. The Roman General, when the republic was threatened with war no longer had to quickly gather men from the citizens that were eligible to serve. Rome survived. Through centuries of endless warfare, the Romans had conquered a wide variety of peoples, including Etruscans, Samnites, Greeks, Sicilians, Iberians, and Carthaginians. Second most important reform was the formation of  a professional, standardized army. So Marius had introduced his first reform. This was strictly against the law, and many conservatives opposed Marius efforts. It could be produced in great quantity, it was warm, it could be made into thin or thick fabric and took dye more easily than other fabrics. The Reforms Of Gaius Marius And The Aftereffects Of The Late Republic Period And Beyond Essay 1682 Words | 7 Pages. He was uneducated, and he was in an army from an early age. This was a huge advantage, by reorganizing the army Marius made the army faster, more mobile, they had to drag less baggage carts. There was a problem with recruiting the poor in that the… In his youth he served in the army and was characterized with bravery at the time of the Numantian War, when Scipio Aelimilianus turned his attention to the young Marius. They were instituted by Gaius Marius in 107 BC and can be broken down into three major reforms: First, Marius established Rome’s first ever standing army (up until the Marian Reforms, Rome had simply enlisted its soldiers on a season-by-season basis and dissolved its army after every campaign). Gaius Gracchus, in full Gaius Sempronius Gracchus, (born 160–153? The bad side to these reforms was loyalty shifting from the state to the Generals. Gaius Marius was one of the most important leaders of the Roman Republic. She would pay for her folly in trying to hamper his reforms later, but Gaius Marius and his reforms had made immediate and positive effects. This would eventually attribute to the downfall of the Roman Republic. Gaius Marius was easily one of the Roman Republic’s most accomplished men. Prior to Marius, Rome recruited its main legionary force from the landowning citize… bce —died 121 bce , Grove of Furrina, near Rome), Roman tribune (123–122 bce ), who reenacted the agrarian reforms of his brother, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus , and who proposed other … During Marius’ long tenure as a military commander, he proved to be an innovative general who instituted many reforms. The so-called Marius reforms were aimed at improving the Roman army, which had low morale after the early defeats with the barbaric Teutons and Cymbras. Gaius Marius’s political reforms were formed on the ideology of strengthening the Roman Republic by professionalising the Roman military. After he became a consular he was given the command over the army against Jogurtha, and he sticked to his words by giving Jogurtha decisive defeats on the battlefield which broth the end to the Numidian war. He was a beloved general, influential military reformer, and a massively successful politician; but later in his career, he tarnished his once sterling reputation. 104/14 is accused of the murder of C.Lusius, but is acquitted by Marius. The first, and most obvious result, was the improvement in the military capability of the army. In 108 B.C.E against the will of Metellus, Marius conceived the desire to run for consulship. His wife, the unloving Catherine, was potentially the leader of this plot against the king. Every century had been further divided into 10 contubernia which were led by a decanus. general Gaius Marius is credited with enacting major army reforms between 107 and 101, changing the formation, tactics, and policies of his legions. After the soldier had finished their 16 years of service they were guaranteed a pension from their general as well as, a plot of land in the conquered regions where they could retire. Marius’s reforms were created to strengthen the Republic by professionalizing Rome’s military, but instead the political impact of the reforms had long term consequences that helped contribute to the decline of the late Roman Republic. From 1066 to 2014, we have created a short gallery of images depicting the many items soldiers had to carry to war. Where did Gaius Marius grow up? Gaius Marius: Great Reformer and Defender of Rome. 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