Hürth: Nova-Institut GmbH, 2014. Fillers, like wood flour or mineral fillers, are particles that are often added to lower the consumption of more expensive material, in this case plastic. The highest specific flexural modulus values for the experimental thermoplastic products were also found in PP-, HDPE- and PVC-based composites. Studies on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Silica Fume-Filled Nylon 66 Polymer Composites for Mechanical Components. The nylon-based composites have the highest strength, exceeding 70 MPa. However, few papers presenting the compressive strength of thermoplastic products have been found. Bamboo vs. Metal. Only one thermoplastic-based material produced by a manufacturer has a tensile strength parallel to the grain similar to that of some wood species and, specifically, to the average of the coniferae species (about 67MPa); all other commercialized thermoplastic products have inferior tensile strengths parallel to the grain (Figure 5). Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are produced by thoroughly mixing ground wood particles and heated thermoplastic resin. [ Links ], LEI, Y. et al. Plastic is malleable, so you can disguise its look, yet bamboo is also pliable and adaptable. Technical standards used in mechanical tests on the analysed materials. Since many factors and procedures in the manufacturing process can change the density of the produced materials, it was considered that applying a simple rule-of-mixture to calculate the composites' densities would lead to unreal values. On the other hand, excluding strengths perpendicular to the grain, the specific compressive strength parallel to the grain is the only property in which the analysed thermoplastic products were, in general, superior to wood, and then, only for experimental products were. Polymer, v. 52, p. 180-190, 2011. Mechanical data were collected from studies that used different standards to obtain values for the materials' density, modulus of elasticity and strength. Figure 9 shows that the commercialized thermoplastic products have the lowest compressive strength parallel to the grain. However, can they really substitute wood lumber products? Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 19, n. 6-7, p. 620-629, abr. (2014), as they exhibit a high deformation under small loads. 2006. Figure 11 Ashby plot presenting the compressive strength perpendicular to the grain vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Figure 12 Specific compressive strength perpendicular to the grain for various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the means of the materials' specific flexural strengths were calculated using data from 47 coniferae wood species, 75 dicotyledon wood species, 17 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 2 papers, and 24 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 19 manufacturers.Â. Among the 20 analysed papers, none provide procedures for the production of fibre-oriented composites in the preparation of the tested samples. Some papers described PP/wood flour/fire retardants (ARAO et al., 2014), PP/talc/wood flour (GWON et al., 2010) and PP-wood fiber and PP-cotton fiber (KIM et al., 2008) composites as having static tensile strength parallel to grain close to 50MPa, while another article showed a recycled HDPE-hemp fiber composite with tensile strength equal to 60MPa (LU; OZA, 2013). Effects of Lubricant Content on Extrusion Processing and Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour-High-Density Polyethylene Composites. Mechanical properties: wood lumber versus plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites. In summary, resin and plastics are very important compounds that consist of hydrocarbon compounds. Fillers can decrease density, strength … Nevertheless, its highest strength values, between 25 MPa and 50 MPa, are similar to those of many coniferae and dicotyledon wood species. Comprehensive information on sizing composite wood shelves is available from an industry trade association. very few data were found on the compressive and shear strength of plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites. The compression strength of industrial fiberglass is almost 17 times that of the same species of structural timber. [ Links ], KOZŁOWSKI, R.; WŁADYKA-PRZYBYLAK, M. Review: flammability and fire resistance of composites reinforced by natural fibers. Figure 14 shows that the specific shear strengths of the coniferae and dicotyledon wood species are similar and that those of the commercialized thermoplastics were lower by a minimum of 60%. Summary – Resin vs Plastic. Although the means of Figure 10 are based on few data on experimental product compressive strengths, it shows that the mean of the 10% highest values of the experimental thermoplastic products' specific compressive strength parallel to the grain exceeds almost 45% of the wood species values. ASTM D4761: standard test method for mechanical properties of lumber and wood-base structural material. 2007. Fernando Ferrari, 514, CEMUNI 1, Goiabeiras | Vitória - ES - Brasil | CEP 29075-910 | Tel. Unlike wood, our fiberglass shapes won’t warp, rot or … Polycarbonate is the preferred material when manufacturers want to use a hardy, transparent plastic, that they can easily incorporate colors and patterns with. Can thermoplastic-based products really substitute for wood lumber in structural or semi-structural functions? Journal of Composite Materials, v. 43, n. 8, p. 877-883, 1 abr. 2008. “They have a superior product with a very compelling price point,” says the judge, Todd Taylor. (*) Specific product recycled content upon request. Results in Physics, v. 2, p. 135-141, 2012. [ Links ], CARUS, M. et al. In both cases, it is manufactured with the dimensions (BOLIN; SMITH, 2011; BAJRACHARYA et al., 2014) of and for similar uses as wood lumber (CARROLL et al., 2001; BENTHIEN; THOEMEN, 2012; BAJRACHARYA et al., 2014). Retains fasteners up to 30% better than standard wood. Because there are many variables that affect the mechanical properties of thermoplastic products, such as the method of manufacture (injection moulding or extrusion), the wood species used to produce the lignocellulosic fillers, and the testing procedures, the proposal of this paper is not to compare particular values, but rather to provide general mechanical properties, showing, using plots, the area in which such materials reside. Vinyl (Polyvinyl . In the case of experimental thermoplastic products developed by researchers, the tensile properties were measured in all studies using ASTM D638 (AMERICAN..., 2014a), but the flexural properties were measured a variety of standards such as ASTM D143 (AMERICAN..., 2014b), ASTM D4761 (AMERICAN..., 2013) and ASTM D6272 (AMERICAN..., 2010a), although most used ASTM D790 (AMERICAN..., 2010b). Figure 2 Specific modulus of elasticity of various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the mean of the 10% highest values, the mean of the 10% lowest values and the total mean of the materials' specific flexural strength were calculated using data from 50 coniferae wood species, 145 dicotyledon wood species, 83 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 14 different papers and 17 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 12 manufacturers.Â. Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Natural Fiber Composites: comparison of wood fiber and cotton fiber. Thus, some of the values showed in and plotted in the graphs of this paper may not be the same as those of the original research, but rather they are close approximations. Used in the right application, most plastic pallets have ample strength to hold large-capacity loads up to 1,500 pounds. If analysing only the commercialized thermoplastic products, the highest flexural strength is close to 40 MPa. This fact makes the design of structures and elements and the construction phase more complex; and. Wood-Plastic Composite Lumber vs. Wood Decking: a comparison of performance characteristics and environmental attributes. Polymer Degradation and Stability, v. 100, p. 79-85, 2014. Some papers, such as Adhikary et al. An Overview of Mechanical Properties and Durability of Glass-Fibre Reinforced Recycled Mixed Plastic Waste Composites. When it comes to structural applications, Bedford’s fiberglass reinforced plastic offers significant advantages compared to timber. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, v. 24, n. 2, p. 155-171, 2011. [ Links ], WANG, K. et al. et al. Chloride) Strength (Tensile) Very good mechanical properties. Polymers & Polymer Composites, v. 23, n. 6, p. 427-433, 2015. [ Links ], NAJAFI, S. K.; HAMIDINA, E.; TAJVIDI, M. Mechanical Properties of Composites From Sawdust and Recycled Plastics. 7) Strength Fiber reinforced plastic has greater flexural strength … [ Links ], ASHORI, A.; NOURBAKHSH, A. Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: effects of chemical compositions and particle size. Oxford: Elsevier, 2005. Its manufacturing formulas enable it to use higher amounts of mineral filters, such as fly ash and gypsum, thus lowering production costs. [ Links ], AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS. [ Links ], RAJA, V. L.; KUMARAVEL, A. [ Links ], ARAO, Y. et al. Composites Part B: Engineering, v. 45, n. 1, p. 1651-1656, fev. When papers did not clearly presented the composites' density values, they were unappreciated in this study, even though the percentage and density of each material in the composites' formulation were described. When considering polycarbonate, consider that polycarbonate plastic … The company has tested the plastic lumber and found that cold temperatures do not make it brittle, which is a common problem with plastics. Effect of Polymeric Matrix Melt Flow Index in Reprocessing Extruded Wood-Plastic Composites. Quão diferentes são suas propriedades mecânicas? Resources, Conservation and Recycling, v. 31, n. 3, p. 241-251, mar. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ)-treated lumber in comparison to wood plastic composite (WPC) decking shows that the latter has a significantly higher environmental impact than the former (BOLIN; SMITH, 2011). No papers measuring the shear strength of thermoplastic products were found. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, v. 102, n. 6, p. 5607-5619, 2006. The properties studied were the modulus of elasticity (flexural modulus), flexural strength, compressive strength parallel and perpendicular to the grain, tensile strength parallel and perpendicular to the grain, and shear strength. [ Links ], ASHBY, M. F. Materials Selection in Mechanical Design. Compressive strength parallel to the grain. A plastic substitute equal to the strength of wood lumber has been a holy grail for plastics researchers and manufacturers for quite some time, reports Finance & Commerce. Philadelphia, 2014a. In general, the commercialized thermoplastic products are at least 2.5 times less efficient than the other materials. [ Links ], KUO, P.-Y. Figure 1 Ashby plot presenting the modulus of elasticity vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ. Researchers studying thermoplastic composites and manufacturers of this type of material rarely measure the tensile strength perpendicular to the grain. Tensile and Flexural Behavior of Hemp Fiber Reinforced Virgin-Recycled HDPE Matrix Composites. Our plastic structural composite lumber was developed to conquer the harshest environments, weather conditions, and commercial applications. A Review on the Degradability of Polymeric Composites Based on Natural Fibres. Use standard woodworking tools. Its physical characteristics like weight, density, shear strength and weathering resistance are more akin to particle board than pure wood… Entretanto, normas técnicas e estudos científicos afirmam que não se pode considerar que os dois materiais tenham o mesmo comportamento estrutural e resistência. This may be true compared to some wooden counterparts, but plastic is also a much lighter material. Most plastic materials appear smooth but artificial, differing from the earthy characteristics of bamboo. Actually, the finds of this study are in agreement to English and Falk (1996), which showed that polyolefins and wood plastic composites have higher density and lower flexural strength and modulus of elasticity (stiffness) than Southern pine and Douglas fir; and also in agreement to Benthien and Thoemen (2012), which related that wood-plastic composites panels have higher specific weight than wood-based … Due to its superior durability and maintainability, plastic lumber could be an alternative to wood lumber under such mechanical situations; the extremely high values of compressive strength shown for the studied experimental thermoplastic composites, compared to wood, reveals their great potential use in compressed elements; regarding the thermoplastic-based products' specific flexural modulus, even considering their best ratios compared to the worst ratios of the wood species, the former still show lower property values, which can be translated to a high deformation in comparison to wood. Polymer Degradation and Stability, v. 95, n. 12, p. 2628-2640, dez. Five strength properties that are commonly measured for design purposes include bending, … Figure 9 Ashby plot presenting the compressive strength parallel to the grain vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, v. 123, p. 1740-1745, 2012. [ Links ], NAUMANN, A.; STEPHAN, I.; NOLL, M. Material Resistance of Weathered Wood-Plastic Composites Against Fungal Decay. In addition, the wood species from which the wood flour and wood fibre are produced may differ from reference to reference. In this respect, Kozłowski and Władyka-Przybylak (2008) and Ndiaye, Gueye and Diop (2013) relates wood polymer composites and plastic composites reinforced by natural fibers, respectively, as having high strength to weight ratio. [ Links ], ASUKE, F. et al. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, v. 41, p. 1491-1497, 2010. [ Links ], ECO-TECH PLASTICS. Actually, the finds of this study are in agreement to English and Falk (1996), which showed that polyolefins and wood plastic composites have higher density and lower flexural strength and modulus of elasticity (stiffness) than Southern pine and Douglas fir; and also in agreement to Benthien and Thoemen (2012), which related that wood-plastic composites panels have higher specific weight than wood-based panels. However, all of the experimental plastic-based products whose data are plotted in Figure 9 are pure nylon products (RAJA; KUMARAVEL, 2015), nylon-silica fume composites (RAJA; KUMARAVEL, 2015), PP-carbonized cow bone powder (ASUKE et al., 2012) or PP-uncarbonized cow bone powder (ASUKE et al., 2012). A company in Minnesota may have just developed plastic lumber that, for the first time, has surpassed wood lumber in strength and perhaps durability. [ Links ], STARK, N. M.; ROWLANDS, R. E. 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