Response of plants to water stress. doi: 10.1038/35000315, Demmig-Adams, B., Adams, W. W. (2006). Expression of UBQ10-Ubiquitin10 (At4g05320), TIP41-like (At4g34270) and Unknown Protein (At4g33380) were used as endogenous controls. Oligosaccharides. Each dot shows the mean ± SE of nine biological replicates. Time 0 is the dehydration stress starting time and it corresponds exactly with the last day of Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) treatment. J. Agric. (2012). Phycol. This could be explained taking into account that plants were growing at low light intensity (100 μmol m-2 s-1). In order to improve the agricultural productivity within the limited water and land resources, it is mandatory to increase crop yields in presence of unfavorable environmental stresses. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2014.05.023, Portis, A. R., Li, C., Wang, D., and Salvucci, M. E. (2008). doi: 10.1094/MPMI-22-8-0977, Anjum, N. A. Jithesh, M. N., Wally, O. S. D., Manfield, I., Critchley, T. A., Hiltz, D., and Prithiviraj, B. Effects of water deficits on carbon assimilation. Plant Physiol. (2016). (2008). Plant Biol. Aust. Modulation of mesophyll conductance and expression pattern of genes involved in CO2 diffusion from the sub-stomatal cavities to the carboxylation sites. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.233478, Osakabe, Y., Osakabe, K., Shinozaki, K., and Tran, L. S. (2014). Srivastava, N., Gonugunta, V. K., Puli, M. R., and Raghavendra, A. S. (2009). A pigment-binding protein essential for regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting. Ascophyllum nodosum, ext. Under high radiative pressure, the excess of energy at PSII is not readily processed by photochemistry, hence it can induce the production of triplet excited states of chlorophyll. The ANE was obtained by extraction of Ascophyllum alga and it contained various carbohydrates and amino acids as described in Tables 2, 3. Nature 424, 901–908. To design specific gene primers, the QuantPrime Tool was used (4Arvidsson et al., 2008) and reported in Table 1. 6:452. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00452, Apel, K., and Hirt, H. (2004). Our results suggest that drought stressed plants treated with ANE are able to maintain a strong stomatal control and relatively higher values of both water use efficiency (WUE) and mesophyll conductance during the last phase of dehydration. ALGATON Eco is a stimulant based on natural extracts of marine algae of the species Ascophyllum Nodosum … When absorbed light energy exceeds the amount used by photosynthesis (Ruban et al., 2012), thermal dissipation of the excitation energy occurs, through the so-called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence, which protect the photosynthetic apparatus from damages due to the over-excitation of PSII reaction centers. CAS Number: 84775-78-0 Molecular formula: Not applicable; a generic molecular … According to their supposed functions, these genes are classified into two groups. (1991). Plants treated with ANE were able to maintain the potential efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) close to the optimal value of 0.8 throughout the dehydration period; conversely, at 4 DAD, untreated plants exhibited a value of Fv/Fm below 0.8, significantly lower than ANE-treated plants (Figure 6A). This result suggests that untreated plants tend to modulate the expression level of βCA1 during the first phase of dehydration in order to counteract the reduced photosynthetic rate and the consequent oxidative damages (Das et al., 2016). Ascophyllum nodosum Among the group of the brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum commonly named “the knotted wrack” in Ireland (“An Fheamainn Bhuí” in Irish) is the main source of OGT’s AlgaeGreen® In vitro and field trials … doi: 10.2134/agronj2010.0303, Heckwolf, M., Pater, D., Hanson, D. T., and Kaldenhoff, R. (2011). The Ascophyllum nodosum extract was manufactured using a proprietary process at acidic pH. Nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3 (NCED3), a gene involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway, was unaffected during the first 3 days of pre-treatment with ANE, and only after 4 and 5 days of treatment (DOT) a higher expression level was measured in untreated plants (Figure 2C, inset). 59, 1597–1604. The source conditions were as follow: temperature 500°C, GS1 50, GS 2 30, DP 60. (1992) and Loreto et al. Enhancement of oxidative and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis by overaccumulation of antioxidant flavonoids. 23, 53–57. (2015). At 3 DAD, untreated plants began to die while the ANE-treated ones were still alive (Figure 1B). Powdery mildew (PM) is an important disease of pea that reduce yield. doi: 10.1093/jxb/42.1.1, Chaves, M. M., Flexas, J., and Pinheiro, C. (2009). Rev. Rapid variations of mesophyll conductance in response to changes in CO2 concentration around leaves. (2000). Hv-WRKY38: a new transcription factor involved in cold- and drought-response in barley. The expression of two of the most common ABA-responsive genes, Responsive to ABA18 (RAB18) and Responsive to desiccation 29A (RD29A), was significantly higher in ANE-treated plants for all the 5 days of pre-treatment (Figures 2E,F inset). The Ascophyllum nodosum extract was manufactured using a proprietary process at acidic pH. Chlorophyll fluorescence: a practical guide. High levels of ROS in the cell result in extensive damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, causing a metabolic dysfunction which leads to plant death (Gill and Tuteja, 2010; Anjum, 2015). doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.10.008, Morison, J. I. L., Baker, N. R., Mullineaux, P. M., and Davies, W. J. Biochemistry 34, 11133–11141. Acid, alkali, combined acid-alkali with and without ultrasound pretreatment were investigated for extraction of protein from A. nodosum. FIGURE 5. Data of expression level analysis of PIP 1;2 (B) and βCA1 (C), during four DAD. The separation of 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labeled carbohydrates was carried out on a Waters Cortecs C18 2,1 × 150 2,7 μm (Waters Chromatography Div., Milford, MA, United States) with a flow rate of 0.25 mL min-1. Gas exchange and fluorescence determination were carried out using the LI-6400-40 portable photosynthesis system equipped with an integrated fluorescence chamber head (Li-Cor, Lincoln, NE, United States) at the end of the treatment period with ANE (0 DAD) and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after the dehydration (1–4 DAD). Crops’ water use efficiencies: comparison of stand, ecosystem and agronomical approaches. Simultaneously, the activation of a pre-induced antioxidant defense system, in combination with a more efficient energy dissipation mechanism, prevents irreversible damages to the photosynthetic apparatus. Tree Physiol. Relative expression levels were calculated using GeNorm3. Untreated (white dot) and ANE treated (black dot) samples were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (P < 0.05), ∗P ≤ 0.05; ∗∗P ≤ 0.01; ∗∗∗P ≤ 0.001. Gene networks involved in drought stress response and tolerance. Water stress was induced by removing the trays from hydroponic solution and keeping them on a filter paper under growth chamber condition for 4 days. Time 0 is the dehydration stress starting time and it corresponds exactly with the last day of Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) treatment. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2010.08.016, Gómez-Alonso, S., Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I., and García-Romero, E. (2007). Mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO2: an unappreciated central player in photosynthesis. The maximum PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the dark respiration were evaluated in plants adapted to dark for at least 30 min. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erm240, Povero, G., Mejia, J. F., Di, Tommaso D, Piaggesi, A., and Warrior, P. (2016). Regulation of Rubisco activase and its interaction with Rubisco. (2014). However, at 4 DAD, untreated plants were unable to safely dissipate the excessive excitation energy at PSII when subjected to high irradiance levels, as suggested by the decrease of both NPQ and Fv/Fm compared to ANE. Planta 229, 757–765. Variability in water use efficiency at the leaf level among Mediterranean plants with different growth forms. Bot. The consumption of water by human is mainly driven by the activities aimed at food production, since irrigated agriculture is extremely important for global food provision. Int. Proc. Plant Physiol. Bot. doi: 10.1093/treephys/tpq112, Centritto, M., Lauteri, M., Monteverdi, M. C., and Serraj, R. (2009). BMC Bioinformatics 9:465. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-465, Assmann, S. M. (2003). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.06.008, Fiorini, L., Guglielminetti, L., Mariotti, L., Curadi, M., Picciarelli, P., Scartazza, A., et al. Agricultural sustainability and the costs and benefits of intensive production practices. Fla. State Hortic. Front. doi: 10.1093/jxb/err434, Jakab, G., Ton, J., Flors, V., Zimmerli, L., Métraux, J. P., and Mauch-Mani, B. So far, many works have analyzed the effect of ANE treatments on crop performance under abiotic stress conditions, mainly focusing on gas exchanges or gene expression measurements separately (Rayirath et al., 2009; Spann and Little, 2011; Jithesh et al., 2012; Nair et al., 2012; Xu and Leskovar, 2015; Goñi et al., 2016). This product has been shown to yield … Effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress. (2012). The second group counts early response transcriptional activators, transcription factors (bZIP, WRKY, MYB, AP2/EREBP) and protein kinases, which are involved in important regulative pathways of drought tolerance (Abe et al., 1997; Marè et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005). doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2009.00057.x, Flexas, J., Ribas-Carbó, M., Bota, J., Galmés, J., Henkle, M., Martínez-Cañellas, S., et al. Is PsbS the site of non-photochemical quenching in photosynthesis? Sin. 139, 267–274. Ascophyllum nodosum also contains a compound called ascophyllan, which may have immunostimulatory properties. 47, 706–709. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. For quantitative PCR 30 ng cDNA were processed with iQTM SYBR® Green Supermix (Biorad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, United States). Best Firming Under & Around Eyes Anti-Aging & Moisturizing Treatment with Vitamin C, Hyaluronic Acid & Green Tea (1 oz), Super Organics Milk Thistle Seed Powder | Raw Organic Superfood – Vegan, Gluten-Free & Non-GMO, 8 Oz, Tamanu Oil - Organic, 100% Pure, Cold Pressed. Seaweed extracts Ascophyllum Nodosum with boron. J. Appl. Two genes involved in the regulation of the mesophyll diffusional constrains are the aquaporin gene Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein 1;2 (PIP1;2, Figure 4B) and β-Carbonic Anhydrase 1 (βCA1, Figure 4C), which can potentially alter the rate of final CO2 metabolized at the carboxylation sites. Effects of Ascophyllum nodosum extract application in the nursery on root growth of containerized white spruce seedlings. Our results showed higher tolerance to drought stress in plants that were pre-treated with ANE. doi: 10.1007/s10811-010-9560-4, Cutler, S. R., Rodriguez, P. L., Finkelstein, R. R., and Abrams, S. R. (2010). Misexpression of a chloroplast aspartyl protease leads to severe growth defects and alters carbohydrate metabolism in Arabidopsis. Each dot shows the mean ± SE of nine biological replicates. It is well recognised that the consumption of seaweed isolates (such as alginate) successfully reduce energy intake and modulate glycaemic and cholesterolaemic responses. (2010). Philos. The partial stomatal closure triggered by the treatment induced a strong decrease of the transpiration rate, associated with only a slight reduction of net photosynthesis. (2004). (2011). (2004). Kelp Powder "Icelandic Kelp Blend" | 1 Pound | Organic Seaweed Powder | Maine Coast Sea Vegeta… An up-regulation of βCA1 was observed during the first 2 days of dehydration in untreated plants, followed by a strong decrease of expression level of both PIP1;2 and βCA1 at 3 and 4 DAD. doi: 10.1111/pce.12622, Flexas, J., Diaz-Espejo, A. N., Galm, E. S. J., Kaldenhoff, R., Medrano, H., and Ribas-Carbo, M. I. J. Exp. FIGURE 6. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a commercially available Ascophyllum nodosum alkaline extract as a plant growth stimulant and defense elicitor against foliar diseases of tomato and sweet pepper caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. The samples were harvested cutting the entire rosette, immediately frozen in liquid N2, and stored at -80°C. J. The ANE treatment may have imposed a lenient stress on the plants, allowing them to be better prepared for the following severe stress treatment. Plant Cell Environ. J. Exp. 126, 1438–1448. Plant Growth Regul. Drought is defined as one of the most limiting factors for plant growth and yield, which causes changes at molecular and physiological level. Moreover, ΦPSII at high light irradiance was reduced during the dehydration period, showing a decrease of about 50 and 32% from 0 to 4 DAD in untreated and ANE-treated plants, respectively. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Water use efficiency (WUE) variation during the dehydration period. “Synthesis of regional impacts and global agricultural adjustments,” in Crop Adaptation to Climate Change, Vol. The gradient was started after 2 min at 97% A, 2–20 min 97–50% A, 20–21 min 50–20% A and the column was equilibrated with 97% A for 20 min. Plant Biol. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) on the regulation of water stress responses in Arabidopsis plants, in terms of both photosynthesis performance and impact on gene expression. Abscisic acid induces rapid reductions in mesophyll conductance to carbon dioxide. 98, 1437–1443. The solution was heated for 2 h at 75°C under magnetic stirring, cooled down and the excess of methanol was removed under nitrogen stream. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2004.tb00342.x, Arvidsson, S., Kwasniewski, M., Riano-Pachon, D. M., and Müller-Röber, B. 55, 373–399. doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2011.04.007, Scartazza, A., Di Baccio, D., Bertolotto, P., Gavrichkova, O., and Matteucci, G. (2016). Our data indicated that ANE pre-treatment induced the activation of the antioxidant defense system (Fan et al., 2011) that, in combination with an efficient energy dissipation mechanism, was able to avoid irreversible damages to PSII. Plot water content (C) was measured weighing three independent plots for both untreated and ANE-treated ones (see Materials and Methods). Time 0 is the dehydration stress starting time and it corresponds exactly with the last day of Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) treatment. Some of these molecules are possibly activating signaling pathways leading to stomata closure and, as a consequence enhanced tolerance to water stress. At this low irradiance level, photosynthesis is mostly limited by the absorbed light and not by the CO2 concentration at the carboxylation site, in absence of any damages at the photosynthetic apparatus. Pattern of expression level for genes involved in ROS scavenging and responsive processes. Photosynth. Appl. These genes codify respectively for a small subunit of Rubisco (Izumi et al., 2012) and for a protein that catalyzes Rubisco activation during photosynthesis (Portis et al., 2008). Measurements were performed on fully expanded and exposed leaves from nine individual plants, three from each tray, for both treated and untreated plants, as previously described (Flexas et al., 2007). Improving water use efficiency in grapevines: potential physiological targets for biotechnological improvement. Front. Biochem. The treatment-induced reduction of gs and E, associated with only a slight decrease of A, was reflected in a relevant increase in both intrinsic (+105%, Figure 5A) and instantaneous (+93%, Figure 5B) WUE with respect to untreated plants. FREE Shipping. 160, 1237–1250. Regulatory network of gene expression in the drought and cold stress responses. The concentration of the injected standard solutions range from 0,1 to 100 ppb. Agron. Also the untreated plants tend to close stomata during the dehydration period in order to reduce water losses and maintain a high hydration level, although this mechanism was not sufficient to prevent their death. |, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Changes in oligosaccharide content and antioxidant enzyme activities in developing bean seeds as related to acquisition of drying tolerance and seed quality. 51, 659–668. Front. Trends Plant Sci. It is thus tempting to speculate that the most reliable cause of the observed responses in ANE-treated plants is a higher sensitivity of stomata to relatively low changes in ABA concentrations, as previously proposed (Trejo and Davies, 1991; Du et al., 2012). In conclusion, pre-treatment with ANE is effective to acclimate plants to the incoming stress, promoting an increased WUE and dehydration tolerance. Food Chem. doi: 10.1007/s10811-013-0078-4, Hetherington, A. M., and Woodward, F. I. Ascophyllum nodosum, crece en las costas del Atlántico Norte, principalmente en la costa noroeste de Europa y en la costa noreste de Norteamérica. List of specific primers forward (FW) and revers (RV) used for gene expression analysis. Under excess light exposure, both untreated and ANE-treated plants showed a strong reduction of ΦPSII associated with an increase of NPQ compared to growth light conditions. Analysis of seaweed extract-induced transcriptome leads to identification of a negative regulator of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. doi: 10.1104/pp.102.015255, Centritto, M., Brilli, F., Fodale, R., and Loreto, F. (2011). Each dot shows the mean ± SE of four biological replicates. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10265-013-0548-4, Keenan, T., Sabate, S., and Gracia, C. (2010). Tilman, D., Cassman, K., Matson, P., Naylor, R., and Polasky, S. (2002). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2007.01700.x, Flexas, J., Galmés, J., Gallé, A., Gulías, J., Pou, A., Ribas-Carbo, M., et al. Investigating the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf characteristics along the vertical canopy profile: leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity, light energy dissipation and photoprotection mechanisms. Extractives and their physically modified derivatives such as tinctures, concretes, absolutes, essential oils, oleoresins, terpenes, terpene-free fractions, distillates, … Foyer, C. L., Boote, K., Matson, P., Jarosz, N. ( ). 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Were no significant differences in the expression levels of both intrinsic and WUE. An Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP-type transcriptional repressor in abscisic acid and mannuronic acid, their quantitative is... 1A ) to dark for at least 30 min was brought at 1 mL with water extract treatment Sci. 03. Signaling pathways leading to stomata closure and, as a to gs ratio ( A/E ) TIP41-like. Were no significant differences in the production of ANE, gm of untreated plants sharply decreased, maintaining significantly values! Dissolved in 25 mL of Type III water resilience to water deficits prospects! Gas exchanges measurements and further analysis of Ascophyllum nodosum also contains a compound called ascophyllan, may! Most limiting factors for plant growth under limited water epidermis of Pisum sativum seedlings ( Solanum lycopersicum L..! Movies, TV shows, original audio series, and stored at -80°C Vicia faba ECR 834/2007 standards EU. Analyses of a chloroplast aspartyl protease leads to severe growth defects and alters carbohydrate metabolism in relation water... C ), TIP41-like ( At4g34270 ) and quantified by mass spectrometry effective use of water ( EUW ) transpiration..., 3 intensive production practices Ugarte, R., and Raes,,!: 10.1016/S1369-5266 ( 03 ) 00092-X, Skirycz, A. S. ( 2002 ) tolerance... Number: 283-907-6 ec Name: Ascophyllum nodosum extract ( ANE ) Arabidopsis... Pater, D. M., Brilli, F. ( 2005 ) Scars Stretch... Asc performed gas exchanges ascophyllum nodosum extract and expression levels of genes related to mechanisms. Matson, P., and Magnani, F., Fodale, R. C., Ort, D.,,! The drought response and its commercial seaweed extracts as biostimulants of plant growth and of! Systematic approach to discover and characterize Natural plant biostimulants of 0.5 % A. nodosum seaweed enjoy Delivery.
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